The church from the end of the fifteenth century until today. Calls for reform. Key reformers: Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Cramner. Catholic reforms and the Council of Trent. The Enlightenment and its aftermath: liberalism, anti-clericalism, ultra-montanism and Vatican I. Byzantine churches. Missionary movements and North American Protestantism. The church as global: Latin America, Asia, Africa. Modernism, ecumenism, Vatican II and toward the 21st century.